Book 2: Exodus


Chapter 30 - Text Notes

1 Though at other times it means "lifting up."

2 David told his general, Yoav, to count the B'nei Yisrael and as a result a plague ensued killing many of the nation (I Shmuel 24). Be'er Yitzchok adds that this does not mean that a plague will come only because they were counted. But, rather, that if punishment is due, taking this count might obstruct any merits which might otherwise have saved them.

3 {Hebrew Ref} denotes that which can be pointed to. See Rashi above, 12, 2; 15, 2.

4 The commentaries wonder what difficulty Moshe had in ascertaining a half shekel and give various answers. See G.A., S.A., M.S.T.

5 Tanchuma 9.

6 Vayikra 27, 32. When tithing animals, they are made to pass, one at a time, under a rod with every tenth one designated as holy.

7 Yirmiyahu 33, 13.

8 Vayikra 27.

9 I Shmuel 2, 36. An {Hebrew Ref} is a form of {Hebrew Ref} and it, too, is a {Hebrew Ref} . (S.C.)

10 Hence a shekel had 20 {Hebrew Ref} (or geirah).

11 It is one sixth only if the calculation is based on the zuz after the {Hebrew Ref} has been added. This method of calculating is referred by the Gemara as {Hebrew Ref} ---"a sixth from without" as opposed to a {Hebrew Ref} ---"a sixth from the inside" i.e., a sixth of what exists before the addition is made.

12 The new value of the shekel thereby becomes 24 geirah.

13 But is being counted something that requires atonement?!

14 I.e., {Hebrew Ref} here should not be understood as atonement, but only as a preventitive of a plague.

15 In vv. 13, 14 and 15. In v. 13 it is in the form of {Hebrew Ref} . See Rashi above, 25, 2 {Hebrew Ref} .

16 The sockets were placed on the ground and into them were fitted the planks of the mishkon.

17 Below, 38, 25.

18 . . . were cast as the holy sockets." Ibid. 27.

19 Bamidbar 1, 1.

20 I.e., these two contributions. Every individual gave the same half shekel.

21 The one with which the communal sacrifice was bought.

22 Below, 35, 24.

23 Shekalim 2b.

24 Below, 32, 35.

25 Tanchuma 9.

26 Bamidbar 1, 1, the month of Iyar being the second month after the exodus from Egypt.

27 Below, 40, 2.

28 Hence this count must have taken place before even the first month and therefore could not possibly be the same one that is recorded in Bamidbar.

29 Below, 38, 27.

30 When Moshe first commanded the people to engage in the construction of the mishkon. See below, Rashi 33, 11.

31 Below, 38, 27.

32 Bamidbar 1, 46.

33 Since the minimum age to be counted was 20.

34 When the second counting took place and those newly turned twenty would now be added.

35 2b.

36 I.e., the age of every individual changes on the first day of Tishri. Hence both a person born in, say, Cheshvan and another born 10 months later, in Ellul will enter their second year on the first day of the following Tishri, i.e., Rosh Hashanah. Those that were 19 years old after Yom Kippur when the first counting was taken, were not yet regarded as twenty in Iyar when the second counting was held, even though they were born between Tishri and Iyar.

37 Ramban asks: First, it is inconceivable that there were none who died during these months among such a large group of people. Secondly, nowhere do we find that all people's ages change on Rosh Hashanah. Many of the Rashi commentaries offer answers in defense of Rashi. See M., G.A.

38 I.e., the silver that was collected.

39 This seems to refer to the "base." Obviously it is not the "base" that is used for washing.

40 Below, 40, 6. This is not the golden altar which is inside the mishkon.

41 And not directly in front of the entrance or even the wall.

42 Below, 40, 29.

43 59a.

44 The word {Hebrew Ref} in {Hebrew Ref} is translated as "with." (B.Y.)

45 19b.

46 Entering the {Hebrew Ref} in and of itself does not require washing the hands and feet, for Rashi understands the word {Hebrew Ref} ---"to serve," later in the verse, as connected to {Hebrew Ref} , i.e, "before entering the {Hebrew Ref} to serve" (S.C.). The services performed in the {Hebrew Ref} were . . .

47 Zevachim 19b.

48 Here, too, from the inference of the negative i.e., {Hebrew Ref} ---"they will wash with water and not die," you may derive the positive: if they do not wash they will die.

49 Was this not already stated in the previous verse?!

50 And performs the service there.

51 Why the need to identify the cinnamon?

52 And, as a result, each weighing increases the total amount by just a bit.

53 5a.

54 Unlike {Hebrew Ref} , where "250" was only half a portion, here the "250" is the total amount.

55 Kerisos 6a.

56 Ibid. 5a.

57 In both instances the accent is on the {Hebrew Ref} which is the first syllable since the vowel under the {Hebrew Ref} is a {Hebrew Ref} .

58 Yeshaiyahu 51, 15.

59 Ibid. 42, 5.

60 In the latter two cases the vowel of the first letter is a {Hebrew Ref} .

61 Which changes them to verbs.

62 See Rashi above, 29, 7.

63 Kerisos 5b, 12a.

64 {Hebrew Ref} should not be construed as something in addition to, and separate from, {Hebrew Ref} of v. 26. (M., G.A.)

65 E.g. blood, wine, oil or water into a vessel that is made to hold liquids, or flour into a vessel made for that purpose.

66 There are two kinds of {Hebrew Ref} --- "sanctity": 1. {Hebrew Ref} ---"sanctity of value," i.e., where {Hebrew Ref} ---the Sanctuary owns the value of an object. It may be redeemed for non- {Hebrew Ref} use, the {Hebrew Ref} reverting to the money. 2. {Hebrew Ref} ---"intrinsic sanctity." This {Hebrew Ref} cannot be redeemed, e.g. korbonos or {Hebrew Ref} . Now, for example, flour that has been designated for use in a minchah---"a meal offering" is only holy as {Hebrew Ref} . However, once it is put into a {Hebrew Ref} it assumes {Hebrew Ref} and all the laws pertaining thereto.

67 I.e., an unclean person who has immersed himself in a mikveh, but must wait till sunset before he can touch or eat terumah.

68 E.g., if flour is put into a {Hebrew Ref} which is meant to hold liquid.

69 Above, 29, 37.

70 See above, 29, 2, where Onkelos translates {Hebrew Ref} as {Hebrew Ref} ---"anointed wafers" and there is no mention of elevating to a higher status.

71 Amos 6, 6. There, too, the Targum is "anoint" and not "elevating to a higher status."

72 Both use a variation of {Hebrew Ref} .

73 Horaiyos 11b.

74 Ibid.

75 Devarim 5, 16.

76 I.e., from the {Hebrew Ref} made by Moshe himself. If, however, an individual transgresses and makes his own {Hebrew Ref} , there is no prohibition against pouring it on his flesh. See next Rashi.

77 Kerisos 5a. See previous Rashi.

78 Above, 5, 8.

79 Below, V. 37.

80 Kerisos 5a.

81 Any use other than the anointing of a kohein godol or a king is considered {Hebrew Ref} ---"upon a stranger," even upon a common kohein, and even more so upon a kohein godol or king who had already previously been anointed. (S.C.)

82 Kerisos 5b.

83 Ibid. 6a.

84 Kerisos 6a.

85 Ibid. 6b.

86 Though only four are specifically mentioned in this verse.

87 See Kerisos 6a for an explanation as to why the first {Hebrew Ref} conveys two, whereas the second {Hebrew Ref} doubles what has accumulated to this point.

88 Which the Gemara mentions along with eleven spices is not included in the count because it . . .

89 Ibid. 6a.

90 Ibid.

91 Yonah 1, 5.

92 Yechezkel 27, 27.

93 Obviously, this is not meant literally: "for G-d," for He certainly has no need for it.

94 I.e., "because I commanded you to do so."

95 So that they will burn it on the {Hebrew Ref} ---"the inner altar."

96 Kerisos 5a.

Chapter 31 - Text Notes

97 This does not mean that G-d named him Betzalel. (G.A., see S.C.)

98 I.e., and incorporates it as part of his own knowledge.

99 Sifrei Devarim 1, 13. See Rashi ibid.

100 Yeshaiyahu 40, 20.

101 But what need is there to place wisdom in someone who is already wise-hearted?!

102 I.e., in addition to Betzalel and Oholiov.

103 The verse is referring to two distinct groups: 1. those who had already possessed wisdom, and 2. those who have now attained wisdom. (G.A.)

104 The {Hebrew Ref} prefix, which usually means "to" here has the sense of "for the purpose of." (S.C.)

105 Above, 25, 31.

106 The Gemara (Yoma 72a) specifically states that {Hebrew Ref} are the {Hebrew Ref} ---"the priestly garments." Rashi maintains, however, that in its plain sense this cannot be the case.

107 Hence {Hebrew Ref} must refer to something else.

108 Bamidbar 4, 6-14.

109 Ibid., v. 12.

110 Ibid., v. 8.

111 Bamidbar 4, 8.

112 Below, 35, 1.

113 Then linen could not have been left out, for . . .

114 Above, 27, 9, where Onkelos translates {Hebrew Ref} as {Hebrew Ref} --- "curtains."

115 Ibid., v. 4 which Onkelos translates {Hebrew Ref} . Both {Hebrew Ref} and {Hebrew Ref} having the root {Hebrew Ref} .

116 See note 8.

117 1. What is the stress of {Hebrew Ref} ---"and you"? 2. Why the juxtaposition of Shabbos and the works of the mishkon? 3. Why the {Hebrew Ref} at the beginning of {Hebrew Ref} ?

118 In effect saying: let the same one who told them of constructing the mishkon be the one who tells them of the prohibition of work on Shabbos, so that no one should mistakenly think that erecting the mishkon sets Shabbos aside. See Mechilta Vayakhel and Rashi below 35, 2.

119 Rosh Hashana 17b.

120 See Ramban and the responses by M., G.A., Abarbanel, B.Y.

121 {Hebrew Ref} and {Hebrew Ref} seem at odds, for if the punishment for desecrating the Shabbos is death then it is not kares, and vice versa.

122 Mechilta.

123 But, certainly Shabbos cannot be profaned!

124 See Rashi Vayikra 21, 9.

125 I.e., not just a rest in the physical sense, but also from the worries and tribulations of the weekdays. (B.Y.)

126 Vayikra 23, 32.

127 Regarding the holiday of Succos.

128 Ibid. v. 39.

129 And not for the physical pleasure of the person. (B.M.C.)

130 When a person is hard at work he, in a sense, "loses" his soul by being in a frenzied state, and loses his breath. Resting, therefore, "retrieves" both.

131 Yeshaiyahu 40, 28.

132 And consequently, the idea of "rest" for Him is ludicrous.

133 See Rashi above, 19, 18 {Hebrew Ref} .

134 This verse begins the narrative of the Sin of the Golden Calf.

135 I.e., the Torah is not necessarily written in chronological order.

136 The day that Moshe came down with the tablets and found the B'nei Yisrael worshipping the calf.

137 And it was after this that G-d commanded them regarding the mishkon.

138 Tanchuma 31.

139 Accordingly {Hebrew Ref} ---"He gave it (the Torah) to Moshe as a bride [is given]."

140 Tanchuma 18.

141 3, 18-22.

142 I.e., the 24 books of Torah, Neviim and Kesuvim.

143 Tanchuma 16.

144 {Hebrew Ref} literally means "with him." Would it not have been more correct here to use {Hebrew Ref} ---"to him"?!

145 Sh. Rab. 41, 5.

146 I.e., in the singular. Consequently, it is read in the plural, but it is written in the singular.

147 Sh. Rab. 41, 6.

Chapter 32 - Text Notes

148 Shoftim 5, 28.

149 Ibid., 3, 25.

150 I.e., on the fortieth day.

151 I.e., before noon on the fortieth day.

152 The seventh of Sivan.

153 Making the 16th of Tammuz the day of his expected return.

154 Early in the morning, see rashi 19, 3, hence, in reality, the seventh of Sivan is not included in the forty days since by the eve of the seventh of Sivan he had not yet ascended.

155 This is derived from {Hebrew Ref} = {Hebrew Ref} ---"six hours have come." (S.C.)

156 Whereupon they made the Golden Calf.

157 89a.

158 I.e., that their assumption that Moshe would return on the 16th was essentially correct and their only mistake was to suppose that noon had already passed. This cannot be so.

159 I.e., the 17th of Tammuz.

160 Below, v. 6.

161 {Hebrew Ref} means: "they will lead us." Why the plural?

162 They then believed that G-d had delegated various powers to various gods. (Sanhedrin 63a; see Maharsha ad loc.).

163 {Hebrew Ref} is used when something is actually being pointed to. See Rashi above, 30, 13 {Hebrew Ref} .

164 Indicating to them that Moshe had died.

165 Shabbos 89a.

166 What is the relevance of this fact in their quest for more gods?

167 They realized that no one being could replace Moshe and therefore they looked for many powers. (G.A.)

168 What difference did it make to Aharon from where the gold would come?

169 Tanchuma 21.

170 Above, 9, 29.

171 The root of {Hebrew Ref} can be either: 1. {Hebrew Ref} ---to tie up, 2. {Hebrew Ref} ---an image or form.

172 Hence {Hebrew Ref} means: "He placed the gold in a cloth and tied it up."

173 Yeshaiyahu 3, 22.

174 II Melachim 5, 23.

175 Yeshaiyahu 8, 1.

176 But Aharon himself never intended to make the Calf.

177 The infamous idolator. See Shoftim 17.

178 "Crushed" in Hebrew is {Hebrew Ref} , hence the name {Hebrew Ref} .

179 Whenever the Israelites failed to produce their quota of bricks, the Egyptians would cruelly fill gaps in their buildings, that were under construction, with Israelite infants. When Moshe complained, G-d told him that these particular infants were destined to grow up to be evil. To demonstrate this He told Moshe to select one of the infants who was thereby miraculously saved. This infant was Michah. The source for this Midrash is Rashi, Sanhedrin 101b {Hebrew Ref} .

180 Moshe Rabbeinu, when blessing the tribes before his death, compared Yoseif to an ox: {Hebrew Ref} ---"a first-born ox." (Devarim 33, 17).

181 As a result of the inscription on the plate: {Hebrew Ref} ---"Arise ox"! (S.C.)

182 Tanchuma 19.

183 Ibid.

184 If this were a statement of the Israelites, they should have said: "These are our gods"!

185 Ibid.

186 "Aharon saw" implies that he was only an observer. Was he not a participant?! (B.Y.)

187 Tehillim 106, 20.

188 See Rashi above, v. 1 {Hebrew Ref}

189 Until Moshe would return.

190 Why "tomorrow"? Also, does it not seem that Aharon was a willing participant?!

191 10, 3.

192 The Israelites first apprached Chur to make gods for them. When Chur attempted to dissuade them they killed him. They then turned to Aharon. (Vayikra Rab. 10)

193 Aharon was ready to sacrifice his life for them.

194 How could Aharon build an altar to the Calf and announce a festival to G-d?!

195 I.e., he did not actually say the words {Hebrew Ref} , for then they would have realized his intention. He only thought these words in his heart. (B.Y.)

196 Ibid.

197 Why early?

198 Bereishis 39, 17.

199 And they went on to kill each other.

200 II Shmuel 2, 14.

201 Tanchuma 20.

202 Whenever the term {Hebrew Ref} is used without being followed by {Hebrew Ref} , viz., {Hebrew Ref} , it indicates a harsh statement. (M.)

203 Bereishis 42, 7.

204 1. And do what? Maharsha Berachos 32a. 2. {Hebrew Ref} ---"Go" should have been sufficient; why the additional {Hebrew Ref} ---"go down"? (Ohr Hachayim; Malbim).

205 Sh. Rab. 42, 3.

206 Sh. Rab. 42, 6.

207 Which implies a refusal to his entreaty.

208 But should not G-d have been angry?!

209 And therefore the all-powerful G-d ought to disregard the insignificant Calf. (Avodah Zarah 55a)

210 The Midrash (Tanchuma 24) relates that when Moshe asked G-d to forgive the Israelites, G-d replied, "How can I accept their repentance when just yesterday I gave to them the Ten Commandments and already they have been contemptuous of them?" Moshe responded . . .

211 When he was sent away from home by his father. (Bereishis 28, 5)

212 Sh. Rab. 42, 9.

213 V. 10.

214 I.e., the three Patriarchs.

215 I.e., if the only merit they will have is mine.

216 Berachos 32a.

217 Bereishis 22, 16.

218 Ibid., 26, 3.

219 Ibid., 35, 11.

220 Sh. Rab. 44, 23.

221 The miracles being that the letters {Hebrew Ref} and {Hebrew Ref} , which are cut out through and through leave the center totally detached and should fall right out. They miraculously did not (Shabbos ibid). Others suggest an additional miracle: when the letters were cut through and through the letters on the reverse side appeared the same.

222 Tanchuma 16.

223 Above, 12, 43. See Rashi there {Hebrew Ref} , where he explains that a {Hebrew Ref} ---"a stranger" is an apostate.

224 Rashi in Shabbos 88 explains that the entire Torah is included in the Ten Commandments.

225 Iyov 18, 15.

226 Mishle 1, 17.

227 See Bamidbar 5, 12-31, since idolatry is comparable to adultery because both are manifestations of unfaithfulness. (S.C.)

228 Avodah Zarah 44a.

229 See below, v. 27.

230 See Devarim 13, 13-18.

231 For a single individual who commits idolatry is stoned to death.

232 Below, v. 35.

233 Yoma 66b.

234 The Ramban suggests two possible ways of explaining what Rashi means here: 1. Moshe was understanding of Aharon and asked: How much pain did you actually endure before relenting and making the Calf? 2. Moshe's question was accusatory: How can you have done this? Did they torture you so terribly that you had to give in to their demand? See also M.; G.A., S.C., N.Y.

235 I.e., "Never did I ask that they remove it."

236 Bamidbar 5, 18.

237 Yoma 66b.

238 Above, 22, 19.

239 In the previous verse Rashi told us that the entire tribe of Leivi did not sin at the Golden Calf. Then how could they have been told to kill their brothers who sinned?!

240 But the brother's father is a [non-Leivi] Israelite.

241 Yoma 66b.

242 I.e., with this act you will replace the first-born, who up to now performed the korbonos services, since they (the first-born) joined the worshippers of the Golden Calf. (S.C.)

243 In Bereishis (32, 21) Rashi explained that {Hebrew Ref} has the meaning of "cleansing" or "wiping away." Furthermore, in Bereishis 6, 16 he explains {Hebrew Ref} as meaning "in front of." The two ideas come together here and Rashi shows the connection.

244 Hence {Hebrew Ref} , the cover of the ark. (S.H.)

245 What is the relevance of its being gold?

246 Berachos 32a.

247 The words {Hebrew Ref} ---"then well and good" are left to be filled in by the reader.

248 I Melachim 2, 19.

249 This seems inconsistent at this point, for G-d is speaking of retribution, whereas the angel going before them seems a favorable thing! (S.C.)

250 I.e., "they are not worthy to be led by Me." Thus, it is consistent with G-d's displeasure with them. (S.C.)

251 As one would say to a friend: "I forgive you this time, but if you ever do it to me again I will not only hold that against you but also that which you did to me now." (B'chor Shor)

252 Sanhedrin 102a.

253 See Rashi above v. 20, for the three categories of sinners and punishments.

Chapter 33 - Text Notes

254 Zevachim 54b.

255 Above, 32, 7.

256 Tanchuma 26.

257 As He did in anger, above, 32, 7.

258 . . . and in Devarim (7, 1) there are seven nations listed, including Girgashi!

259 Vayikra Rab. 17, 6.

260 In other words: {Hebrew Ref} refers back to {Hebrew Ref} and must therefore be understood as: "Go up from here to a land flowing with milk and honey. (S.C.)

261 V. 2.

262 And it is therefore preferable that an angel lead you.

263 The Gemara (Shabbos 88a) relates that when the B'nei Yisrael said {Hebrew Ref} before {Hebrew Ref} , thereby indicating their unquestioning obedience to G-d, the angels came and put two crowns on each person's head---one for {Hebrew Ref} and one for {Hebrew Ref} .

264 Yeshaiyahu 26, 20.

265 Berachos 7a. And this should ease their mourning.

266 Many ask: if no one put on his ornaments, as is stated in v. 4, then why are they told here to remove their ornaments? See Ibn Ezra, Rabbeinu Bachya, Chizkuni, B'chor Shor, Sifsei Cohen, others.

267 I.e., {Hebrew Ref} is not a result of {Hebrew Ref} , but a statement in its own right. Accordingly {Hebrew Ref} is not "I will know"---future tense, but rather, "I know." (S.C.; B.Y)

268 {Hebrew Ref} is usually future, but here . . .

269 Meaning: "since the B'nei Yisrael have been ostracized by G-d, the Master, they ought to be ostracized by me, the disciple. (S.C.)

270 Tanchuma 27.

271 Yehoshua 3, 4. Yehoshua told the B'nei Yisrael not to distance themselves more than two thousand amohs (the maximum distance one may walk out of his city on Shabbos) from the Ark, so that they might be able to come to it on Shabbos to pray. Moshe, likewise, did not distance himself more than two thousand amohs to enable them to come to him on Shabbos with any questions they might have. (Tanchuma 27)

272 But was this not Moshe's tent?!

273 Tanchuma ibid.

274 {Hebrew Ref} is usually future, but here . . .

275 I.e., the reason why one who sought Moshe is referred to as a {Hebrew Ref} ---"one who seeks G-d."

276 The first explanation in Rashi of {Hebrew Ref} refers to those who sought Moshe. According to the latter explanation it means, literally, those who sought G-d.

277 {Hebrew Ref} ---"all the people would rise and stand" seems redundant.

278 Rambam (Moreh Nevuchim 1, 4) writes that {Hebrew Ref} ---"gazing" (as opposed to {Hebrew Ref} --- "looking") conveys more than seeing the outward, superficial thing, but understanding the inner essence of something. (S.A.)

279 Sh. Rab. 51, 6.

280 Whereas, customarily, he translates {Hebrew Ref} as {Hebrew Ref} , here it becomes {Hebrew Ref} , the reflexive form, i.e., speaking to oneself.

281 {Hebrew Ref} , with a dagesh in the {Hebrew Ref} being equivalent to {Hebrew Ref} . See previous note.

282 And it would be disrespectful to say that G-d speaks with man.

283 And not as the construction of the sentence implies--- "to the entrance of his tent." (S.C.)

284 See Rashi previous verse.

285 I.e., until the first of Nissan.

286 You have committed a great sin and now I will go up to G-d." (above, 32, 30)

287 "As [I did] the first time---forty days and forty nights" (Devarim 9, 18). At this time G-d accepted Moshe's prayers and pleas.

288 Below, 34, 2.

289 Devarim 10, 10.

290 From 7 Sivan till 17 Tammuz.

291 From 1 Ellul till 10 Tishri.

292 From 19 Tammuz till 29 Av.

293 Tanchuma 31.

294 I.e., Onkelos translates all the verbs here in the present (ongoing) tense.

295 The Midrash explains {Hebrew Ref} as a command and {Hebrew Ref} in the past tense.

296 "Hence you must return to the encampment."

297 Tanchuma 27.

298 As one person would say to another, "Think for a minute of what you are saying!"

299 Sh. Rab. 45, 4.

300 Above, 19, 9.

301 I.e., by permitting me to know my reward I will know the value of the "finding of favor."

302 Moshe said in effect: "If the reward for my {Hebrew Ref} is that you will exchange Your people for my descendants, I do not consider that a worthy reward, for what assurance have I that ultimately my descendants will not provoke You to abandon them? (M.)

303 I.e., by accepting my prayer to spare them You make it known to me how much You value my {Hebrew Ref} , and thereby I can imagine the reward that awaits me. (G.A.).

304 7a.

305 {Hebrew Ref} having the meaning "I, Myself."

306 II Shmuel 17, 11.

307 Though G-d had already reassured him of this, nevertheless Moshe expressed how much this meant to him and the people ---to the point that, otherwise, they would have preferred not going up. (M.)

308 Bereishis 7a.

309 I.e., through Your resting Your Shechina exclusively amongst us.

310 Above, 9, 4.

311 Rashi now anticipates the reader's question: But, did not G-d rest His Shechinah on one of the nations of the world, viz., Bilaam, with whom He conversed?!

312 Bamidbar 24, 4.

313 I.e., an illustration of how prophecy reaches one of the nations of the world.

314 Iyov 4, 12. I.e., the word was smuggled to me stealthily.

315 How does this request of Moshe follow the above? (G.A.)

316 See vv. 21, 22. "This will be a partial fulfillment of your request to see My Glory, though it cannot be completely granted." See next verse.

317 I.e., {Hebrew Ref} --- G-d's thirteen attributes of mercy. See below, 34, 6-7.

318 And though the merit of the Patriarchs may be finite, My mercies are infinite.

319 Rosh Hashanah 17b.

320 Below, 34, 10. A covenant is irrevocable and must always be fulfilled.

321 Rosh Hashanah, ibid.

322 "G-d is the place of the world"---the world is subservient to, and its existence is totally dependent on, G-d. "The world is not His place"---He is not limited by the world. (B.M.C.)

323 Ber. Rab. 68, 9.

324 Bamidbar 16, 14.

325 Mishle 30, 17.

326 Yeshaiyahu 37, 25.

327 I.e., the {Hebrew Ref} who were enraged at Moshe's request to see G-d's Glory, when they, the {Hebrew Ref} who are in the service of the Almighty, constantly cannot do so. (Pirkei deR. Eliezer)

328 Bam. Rab. 14, 19.

329 Berachos 7a.

330 "The above parsha is not fathomable to one who has not studied the 'secrets of the Torah' "---Ramban v. 14.

Chapter 34 - Text Notes

331 1. The word for hewing stones from a quarry is {Hebrew Ref} . Hence, {Hebrew Ref} would have been more appropriate here. (B.Y.) 2. Why {Hebrew Ref} --- "for yourself"? (Maharsha Nedarim 38a, cited by L.S.R.)

332 Tanchuma 29; Vayik. Rab. 32, 2.

333 Unlike the First Tablets, which were carved by G-d Himself. Why?

334 Moshe had to carve them out himself as the bridesman in the parable had to supply the new paper for the marriage contract.

335 Tanchuma 30.

336 And were eventually broken.

337 Ibid. 31.

338 It is unclear as to who called out. (M.)

339 Thereby making it clear that it was Moshe who called out.

340 These represent the first two of the "thirteen attributes of mercy."

341 Rosh Hashanah 17b.

342 Though {Hebrew Ref} represents retribution. {Hebrew Ref} represents mercy.

343 Tehillim 22. 2.

344 Though the second {Hebrew Ref} is the Attribute of Mercy after the sin, nevertheless that is when the sinner repents immediately. {Hebrew Ref} is needed when the sinner puts off repentance. (S.C.)

345 Sanhedrin 111a.

346 Rosh Hashanah 17a.

347 The "kindness" here does not refer to G-d's kindness as it does in {Hebrew Ref} . (S.C.)

348 Yoma 36b.

349 So as to encourage him to repent.

350 Ibid. 86a. Note: Among the "Thirteen Attributes of Mercy there are several that seem somewhat alike. Consult the commentaries for the subtle distinctions between them. Mizrachi and Gur Aryeh, among others, write at length on this matter. See also Tomer Devorah.

351 But does it not say {Hebrew Ref} --- "Children will not die for [the sins of] their fathers" (Devarim 24, 16)?!

352 Above, in 20, 5 it states: {Hebrew Ref} ---"He visits the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons, etc. of those who hate Me." Hence, only if the sons also hate G-d, does He punish the sons for the fathers' sins.

353 Berachos 7a.

354 Which is five hundred times greater than four generations.

355 Toseftah Sotah 4, 1.

356 1. But had not G-d already promised: {Hebrew Ref} ---"My presence will go with you" (above, 33, 14)?! 2. How could Moshe ask that G-d go among them {Hebrew Ref} ---for it is a stiff-necked people. Is this not the very same reason that G-d gave for not going among them: {Hebrew Ref} --- "that I will not go up among you for you are a stiff-necked people" (above, 33, 3)?! (S.A.)

357 The word {Hebrew Ref} in {Hebrew Ref} is rendered "if."

358 Above, 33, 3.

359 E.g., Bereishis 43, 7; Bamidbar 20, 5.

360 By resting Your Shechinah only among us.

361 Above, 33, 16. See Rashi ibid.

362 . . . as the verse goes on to say: {Hebrew Ref} . See previous and next Rashi.

363 {Hebrew Ref} ---"we will be distinguished."

364 See Rashi above, 33, 2.

365 Vayik. Rab. 17, 6.

366 Obviously jealousy as it applies to man does not apply to G-d.

367 When it is used in connection with G-d.

368 Over other gods.

369 See Rashi above, 23, 15.

370 As if it were written: " {Hebrew Ref} ."

371 Mishle 17, 14.

372 {Hebrew Ref} thus means: that she will produce to be a male.

373 See Rashi above, 13, 13.

374 Bechoros 5b.

375 This is unlike other things given as redemption which themselves become {Hebrew Ref} ---"sacred." (S.C.)

376 Ibid. 9b.

377 Ibid. 10b.

378 ---By not redeeming the {Hebrew Ref} .

379 Mechilta parshas Bo.

380 {Hebrew Ref} ---"according to your evaluation of five shekalim (or: sela'im)."(Bamidbar 18, 16.)

381 Is there any connection between this and what precedes it and, if not, how does one account for the letter {Hebrew Ref} of {Hebrew Ref} ---" and you must not appear, etc."?

382 Chagiga 7a.

383 Having been stated previously (above, 23, 15).

384 I.e., it has no other purpose in having been written.

385 One of the thirteen methods of expounding the Torah; based on the similarity of words.

386 If you buy a Hebrew slave you may work him for no more than six years, after which you must send him away with {Hebrew Ref} ---severance pay. See Devarim 15, 12-15.

387 Five sela'im worth of grain, and sheep, and wine.

388 The gezeirah shavah is made as follows: just as the word {Hebrew Ref} here, which is juxtaposed to the redemption of a first-born, which is five sela'im, so, too, {Hebrew Ref} which appears regarding the {Hebrew Ref} of an {Hebrew Ref} (Devarim 15, 14) also must equal 5 sela'im of each of the three items mentioned there. (Kiddushin 17a)

389 But, there are a total of 39 {Hebrew Ref} ---major labors, which are prohibited on Shabbos!

390 I.e., the plowing at the end of the sixth year is for the crop of the Seventh Year.

391 I.e., to harvest at the beginning of the eighth year a crop that was at least one-third ripened during Sheviis.

392 I.e., some of the prohibitions of the Seventh Year apply as well to the end of the sixth and beginning of the eighth years.

393 Vayikra 25, 4.

394 See note 59.

395 For there is no obligatory plowing in the Torah.

396 For there is a mitzvah on the night of the 16th of Nissan, even if it falls on Shabbos, to cut the new barley crops for the omer-offering, which takes place the following day. See Vayikra 23, 10.

397 Rosh Hashanah 9a.

398 Menachos 84a.

399 As opposed to the gathering of the crop into piles, in the fields, which takes place during the entire summer.

400 Devarim 22, 2.

401 The year is looked upon as a "wheel" and as it rotates, every point of it keeps returning to the same spot.

402 Devarim 2, 31.

403 Bamidbar 21, 32.

404 Who was appointed to this particular korbon Pesach.

405 That if any of these people possess chometz during any of the services of the korbon Pesach they transgress a negative precept.

406 Pesachim 63b.

407 In that case, even if the fat has not been burnt by morning the korbon Pesach remains valid. {Hebrew Ref} ---"remaining overnight" only affects the korbon if the fat was left off the altar overnight.

408 Mechilta.

409 Zevachim 87a.

410 It does not refer to the korbon Pesach itself which is eaten on the night of the 15th of Nissan.

411 I.e., 1. that become invalid as a result of {Hebrew Ref} . 2. {Hebrew Ref} occurs only if the parts to be burnt are not put on the altar anytime before dawn. 3. Having been placed on the altar in time {Hebrew Ref} does not apply even if they failed to be consumed by morning.

412 Devarim 8, 8. They are: wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pommegranates, olives, dates. These are the only species to which bikkurim applies.

413 Bikkurim 3, 1.

414 See Rashi above 23, 19.

415 Chullin 115b.

416 Ibid. 113b.

417 Ibid 113a.

418 What is the stress of " these words"?

419 Gittin 60b.

420 . . . which he did not attain at the First Tablets. (S.C.)

421 Above, 33, 22.

422 Tanchuma 37.

423 Above, 24, 17.

424 Sifre Naso 1.

425 The {Hebrew Ref} prefix, though it usually means "in," sometimes, albeit rarely, means "of."

426 What did he say to them?!

427 I.e., the entire Torah.

428 Since {Hebrew Ref} was the teaching of the Torah, therefore, it must have been an ongoing process. Hence the correct interpretation is: "And Moshe would speak to them." (M.)

429 54b.

430 Kesuvos 62b.

431 Summary: When speaking with G-d and to the B'nei Yisrael he would remove the cover. When he finished transmitting the words of G-d he would replace the cover until he was again called by G-d.

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